Clojure: case conversion and boundaries

Inconsistent case is a problems that tends to come up at application boundaries in your software stack. For example your Clojure codebase might use kebab-case for keywords, whilst your database uses snake_case for column names and your client wants camelCase in its json responses. Often, conventions and/or technical limitations prevent you from simply having a single case throughout your entire stack.

One "solution" to this problem is to accept the fact that your app will have a mix of cases. However, this can lead to mistake and frustration, does this function expect customer-id, cutomerId or customer_id? What format does our mobile client expect? A more practical solution to this problem, the one this article will cover, is to add automatic case conversion at these boundaries in your software stack.

Converting the case of a key

Let's start by writing a simple case conversion function for converting kebab-case keywords to camelCase keywords.

(defn kebab-case->camelCase [k]
  (let [words (clojure.string/split (name k) #"-")]
    (->> (map clojure.string/capitalize (rest words))
         (apply str (first words))

(kebab-case->camelCase :foo-bar-baz)

=> :fooBarBaz

Converting the case of keys in a map

Now that we have a function for converting case let's convert all the keys of a map using the map-keys function we implemented in this article.

(defn map-keys [f m]
  (->> (map (fn [[k v]] [(f k) v]) m)
       (into {})))

(map-keys kebab-case->camelCase
          {:character-id 1 :first-name "John" :second-name "Snow"})

=> {:characterId 1, :firstName "John", :secondName "Snow"}

UPDATE: As of Clojure 1.11.0 there is now a built in function in clojure.core called update-keys which behaves identically to map-keys but takes the arguments in the opposite order (update-keys m f).

Converting case of keys in a nested data structure

For converting the keys of arbitrarily nested data structures we can use the clojure.walk/postwalk function. Let's check out the docs.

(doc clojure.walk/postwalk)

([f form])
  Performs a depth-first, post-order traversal of form.  Calls f on
  each sub-form, uses f's return value in place of the original.
  Recognizes all Clojure data structures. Consumes seqs as with doall.

Combining clojure.walk/postwalk with our map-keys function we can create a transform-keys function that will take a transformation function and apply it to all keys in a data structure.

(defn transform-keys [t form]
  (clojure.walk/postwalk (fn [x] (if (map? x) (map-keys t x) x)) form))

(transform-keys kebab-case->camelCase
 [{:character-id 1
   :first-name "Olaf"
   :second-name "Iondrake"
   :items {:bag-of-holding ["sword" "axe" "money"]}}
  {:character-Id 2
   :first-name "Sigurd"
   :second-name "Rockfist"
   :items {:bag-of-holding ["scroll" "potion of healing"]}}])

=> [{:characterId 1,
     :firstName "Olaf",
     :secondName "Irondrake",
     :items {:bagOfHolding ["sword" "axe" "money"]}}
    {:characterId 2,
     :firstName "Sigurd",
     :secondName "Rockfist",
     :items {:bagOfHolding ["scroll" "potion of healing"]}}]

There you have it, a function for converting the case of keys in an arbitrarily nested data structure. You can use this function at the boundaries of your software stack to keep you and your team sane.

For more robust case conversion checkout the awesome camel-snake-kebab library.